# QMR

QMR is a short-recurrence version of GMRES for solving $Ax = b$ approximately for $x$ where $A$ is a linear operator and $b$ the right-hand side vector. $A$ may be non-symmetric.

## Usage

`IterativeSolvers.qmr`

— Function`qmr(A, b; kwargs...) -> x, [history]`

Same as `qmr!`

, but allocates a solution vector `x`

initialized with zeros.

`IterativeSolvers.qmr!`

— Function`qmr!(x, A, b; kwargs...) -> x, [history]`

Solves the problem $Ax = b$ with the Quasi-Minimal Residual (QMR) method.

**Arguments**

`x`

: Initial guess, will be updated in-place;`A`

: linear operator;`b`

: right-hand side.

**Keywords**

`initally_zero::Bool`

: If`true`

assumes that`iszero(x)`

so that one matrix-vector product can be saved when computing the initial residual vector;`maxiter::Int = size(A, 2)`

: maximum number of iterations;`abstol::Real = zero(real(eltype(b)))`

,`reltol::Real = sqrt(eps(real(eltype(b))))`

: absolute and relative tolerance for the stopping condition`|r_k| ≤ max(reltol * |r_0|, abstol)`

, where`r_k = A * x_k - b`

`log::Bool`

: keep track of the residual norm in each iteration;`verbose::Bool`

: print convergence information during the iteration.

**Return values**

**if log is false**

`x`

: approximate solution.

**if log is true**

`x`

: approximate solution;`history`

: convergence history.

## Implementation details

QMR exploits the tridiagonal structure of the Hessenberg matrix. Although QMR is similar to GMRES, where instead of using the Arnoldi process, a pair of biorthogonal vector spaces $V$ and $W$ is constructed via the Lanczos process. It requires that the adjoint of $A$ `adjoint(A)`

be available.

QMR enables the computation of $V$ and $W$ via a three-term recurrence. A three-term recurrence for the projection onto the solution vector can also be constructed from these values, using the portion of the last column of the Hessenberg matrix. Therefore we pre-allocate only eight vectors.

For more detail on the implementation see the original paper ^{[Freund1990]} or ^{[Saad2003]}.

QMR can be used as an iterator via `qmr_iterable!`

. This makes it possible to access the next, current, and previous Krylov basis vectors during the iteration.

- Saad2003Saad, Y. (2003). Interactive method for sparse linear system.
- Freund1990Freund, W. R., & Nachtigal, N. M. (1990). QMR : for a Quasi-Minimal Residual Linear Method Systems. (December).
- Saad2003Saad, Y. (2003). Interactive method for sparse linear system.
- Freund1990Freund, W. R., & Nachtigal, N. M. (1990). QMR : for a Quasi-Minimal Residual Linear Method Systems. (December).